Diabetes mellitius is better known as diabetes and is a metabolic disease. Patients with this disease have a continuously elevated blood glucose level. The disturbance of the blood sugar level is either due to insulin resistance or insulin deficiency, which in the long term can lead to damage to blood vessels and organs. The disease is divided into 3 clinical types:
- Type 1 diabetes: The patient’s pancreas produces insufficient or no endogenous insulin. Patients must continuously inject themselves with insulin to bring their elevated blood glucose levels into the normal range. This routine accompanies these patients throughout their lives. Nevertheless, this form of diabetes is less common on average.
- Type 2 diabetes: In this clinical picture, too little sugar gets from the blood into the corresponding tissue. Due to the insufficient insulin action, the concentration of sugar in the blood is too high. This leads to a lack of energy. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. Patients can be treated by dietary changes and exercise as well as special medication or insulin.
- Gestational diabetes: is a concomitant disease, usually without symptoms, that occurs in many pregnant women. The change in metabolism during pregnancy can lead to excessive blood sugar, as sugar is absorbed by the body’s cells much more slowly after eating than in non-pregnant women. Gestational diabetes often occurs when women have previously had permanently reduced insulin sensitivity.
The symptoms that occur most frequently are fatigue and weakness, a strong feeling of thirst, dry skin and frequent urination. Diabetes is often caused by obesity, insufficient exercise and poor, high-fat diet. For this reason, treatment is also based in advance on a change in lifestyle, the integration of sport into everyday life and a more conscious diet. In addition, oral medication and, in advanced stages of type 2 diabetes, insulin injections can also be used to counteract this.