Insulin is a peptide hormone. It controls the absorption of blood sugar (glucose) into the body’s cells. The effect of insulin is to lower blood sugar and is therefore used primarily in the treatment of diabetes. The pancreas ensures the body’s own insulin production by the islet cells. This is also where the peptide hormone gets its name from. From a chemical point of view, insulin is a macromolecule. It consists of two longer polypetides and is linked together by two disulfide bridges.
The hormon is vital for the human body, because only in this way are most of the body’s cells able to obtain glucose from food and use it further. Another task of the peptide hormone is to transport sugar from the bloodstream directly into the cells and at the same time to control and regulate the fat and protein balance. Due to the type of diet and regularity, there are continuous fluctuations in blood sugar and insulin levels.