Surgery is a broad field of medicine, so it can be subdivided into further specialties. Doctors can specialise in these through various further training courses. Specialist areas are general, cardiac and vascular surgery. Furthermore, there are specialists in paediatric, thoracic and visceral surgery. Orthopaedics and trauma surgical treatments as well as plastic and aesthetic surgery also have their own speciality. In all areas, conservative wound treatments as well as surgical interventions and operations are carried out. Before operations, the doctor in charge conducts patient education talks and prescribes therapies for follow-up treatment. The focus is on healing through invasive interventions. Such interventions can be caused by injuries or their consequences, but also by congenital malformations or physical changes in shape.
In order to be able to work as a doctor in a particular surgical area, medical studies and the subsequent licence to practise medicine are compulsory. Further training to become a surgical specialist takes another six years and includes basic further training and specialisation.